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中藥材市場亂象要標本兼治

陕西省快乐十分派彩电子走势图 www.gkvzj.com 2015-2-11 10:17| 發布者: 中藥材| 查看: 8966| 評論: 55|來自: 中國經濟時報

摘要:   中藥材染色增重、摻雜使假等亂象屢禁不止。近日,央視記者暗訪河南禹州中藥材市場,禹州中藥材專業市場是河南省唯一的國家級中藥材專業市場,自古有“藥不經禹州不香”之說,是中國四大“藥都”之一。記者發現: ...

  中藥材染色增重、摻雜使假等亂象屢禁不止。近日,央視記者暗訪河南禹州中藥材市場,禹州中藥材專業市場是河南省唯一的國家級中藥材專業市場,自古有“藥不經禹州不香”之說,是中國四大“藥都”之一。記者發現:馬路上,中藥材隨意攤曬,混雜動物糞便,有商販為讓梔子顏色好看,竟用染色劑浸泡。更有甚者拿冒牌貨充當野生柴胡。抽檢發現,柴胡合格率為零。專家表示,假柴胡不僅沒藥效,入藥還可能對人體產生嚴重不良反應。

  央視曝光后,禹州市可謂反應迅速,立即安排部署了對中藥材專業市場的專項治理和集中整頓。隨即查扣柴胡、白芍、黨參、木瓜等問題藥材6個品種、500公斤。其中查處柴胡經營商戶5家、查扣問題柴胡130公斤,沒收非法加工藥材工具14件,關停違法違規經營商戶5家。

  這樣的場景并不令人陌生。此前,素有華佗故里、“中華藥都”之稱的安徽亳州中藥材市場,也因普遍用硫磺熏制、增重染色中藥材而被央視曝光。彼時,亳州市也迅速成立由紀委、公安、藥監等七部門組成的行動領導小組,進行了專項整治。

  客觀地說,監管部門對中藥材市場亂象的整治不可謂不嚴厲。例如,針對亳州中藥材造假事件,國家食品藥品監督管理總局責令8家嚴重違規的中藥飲片生產企業停產整頓,收回了6家企業的GMP****,并對其中12家企業立案調查。但嚴厲的監管并沒有改變市場普遍摻雜使假的局面,專項治理和集中整頓總讓人覺得是“按下葫蘆浮起瓢”。

  究其原因,中藥材市場整治只解決了流通領域的部分問題,而中藥材從種植、生產到經營“靠天吃飯”、粗放式發展的痼疾并沒有改變。由于中藥材的來源缺乏有效控制,加上監管者檢驗鑒別的手段相對有限,有些中藥材難以進行有效鑒別,于是眾多中藥材生產經營者不惜鋌而走險,制**假、劣中藥材,并從中牟取暴利。

  應該看到,藥品質量是生產出來的,而不是檢驗出來的,這也是藥監部門進行藥品質量管理的基本原則和出發點。由于藥品的特殊性,對質量要求很高,對中藥材也應如此,不允許有次品或不合格品進入市場。

  因此,監管部門應將關卡前移,從中藥材種植、生產方面入手,從源頭杜絕中藥材亂象。對此,國際上植物藥的監管經驗值得借鑒。例如韓國,在其高麗人參的生產管理中,政府都制定了從人參的選種、種植、栽培到初加工的嚴格管理規范;同時也有相應的質量標準對人參的化學物質含量、農藥含量等進行檢測,這樣就保證了高麗人參質量較高和農藥含量較低;此外,韓國成立了高麗人參新型生產機構——韓國人參公社,專門負責高麗人參的生產銷**,這樣既保證了特定品種藥材的較高品質,又有助于樹立其獨特的品牌。

  其實,中國也早在2002年就制定了GAP(Good Agriculturing Practice,中藥材生產質量管理規范),在該規范中,對與中藥材生產相關的產地生態環境、種質和繁殖材料、栽培與養殖管理、包裝、運輸與貯藏、質量管理、人員和設備、文件管理等方面作了較為系統的規定。不過,由于種種原因,該規范并不是強制執行,而是由企業自愿認證。

  目前,中藥材市場亂象叢生,僅靠在中藥材流通領域的整治,很難達到根治的效果。治本之策,還在于中藥材種植、生產的標準化、現代化,監管部門應積極利用互聯網、物聯網等新技術,盡快建立中藥材質量追溯系統,督促中藥材經營者完善中藥材質量,從而減少藥監部門消耗在假、劣藥方面的處理精力,以便投入更多的力量促進中藥材市場的良性發展。

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