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板藍根

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摘要: 【功能主治】 清熱,解毒,涼血。治流感,流腦,乙腦,肺炎,丹毒,熱毒發斑,神昏吐衄,咽腫,痄腮,火眼,瘡疹,舌絳紫暗,喉痹,爛喉丹痧,大頭瘟疫,癰腫;可防治流行**乙型腦炎、急慢**肝炎、流行**腮腺炎、骨 ...

【別    名】    靛青根,藍靛根,靛根

【藥用部位】    為十字花科植物菘籃和草大青的根;或爵床科植物馬藍的根莖及根。

【成    份】    菘藍根含靛藍(indigotin,indigo),靛玉紅(indirubin),蒽醌類、β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol),γ-谷甾醇(γ-sitosterol)以及多種氨基酸:精氨酸(arginine),谷氨酸(glutamic acid),酪氨酸(tyrosine),脯氨酸(proline),纈氨酸(valine),γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobu-tyric acid)?;購誚孀輿?sinigrin),靛甙(indoxyl-β-hlucoside),色****(trptanthrin),1-硫**酸-2-羥基丁-3-烯(l-thiocyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene),表告伊春(epigoitrin),腺甙(adenosine),棕櫚酸(palmitic acid),蔗糖(sucrose)和含有12%氨基酸的蛋白多糖。

還含有抗革蘭氏陽**和陰**細菌的抑菌物質及動力精。

【功能主治】   清熱,解毒,涼血。治流感,流腦,乙腦,肺炎,丹毒,熱毒發斑,神昏吐衄,咽腫,痄腮,火眼,瘡疹,舌絳紫暗,喉痹,爛喉丹痧,大頭瘟疫,癰腫;可防治流行**乙型腦炎、急慢**肝炎、流行**腮腺炎、骨髓炎。

①《日華子本草》:"治天行熱毒。"

②《本草述》:"治天行大頭熱毒。"

③《本草便讀》:"清熱解毒,辟疫,殺蟲。"

④《分類草藥**》:"解諸毒惡瘡,散毒去火,搗汁或服或涂。"

⑤《現代實用中藥》:"馬藍根為清涼、解熱、解毒劑,用于丹毒、產褥熱等。"

⑥《中藥志》:"清火解毒,涼血止血。治熱病發斑,丹毒,咽喉腫痛,大頭瘟,及吐血、衄血等癥。"

⑦《遼寧常用中草藥手冊》:"治肝炎,腮腺炎。"

⑧《上海常用中草藥》:"治感?*⑷取?

⑨《廣西中草藥》:"治乙腦,流感,流腦,咽喉炎,口腔炎,扁桃體炎。"

【用法與用量】   內服:煎湯,15-30g,大劑量可用60-120g;或入丸、散。久用:適量,煎湯熏洗。
【選    方】     ①治流行**感冒:板藍根一兩,羌活五錢。煎湯,一日二次分服,連服二至三日。(《江蘇驗方草藥選編》)

②治大頭天行,初覺憎寒體重,次傳頭面腫盛,目不能開,上喘,咽喉不利,口渴舌燥:黃芩(酒炒)、黃連(酒炒)五錢,陳皮(去白)、甘草(生用)、玄參二錢,連翹、板藍根、馬勃、鼠粘子、薄荷一錢,僵蠶、升麻七分,柴胡、桔梗二錢。為末湯調,時時服之,或蜜拌為丸,噙化。(李杲,普濟消毒飲)

③預防流行**腮腺炎:板藍根、山茨菇各一兩,連翹八錢,甘草六錢,青黛一錢(沖服)。上藥用水浸泡半小時,放入大砂鍋內,放清水800~1000毫升,煎成500毫升,分為10份,裝入小瓶。4歲以上兒童每天服一次,每次15毫升;1~3歲每次服10毫升,每天一次,溫服。(《全展選編·愛國衛生》)

④治肝炎:板藍根一兩。水煎服。(《遼寧常用中草藥手冊》)

⑤治肝硬化:板藍根一兩,茵陳四錢,郁金二錢,苡米三錢。水煎服。(《遼寧常用中草藥手冊》)

⑥治痘疹出不快:板藍根一兩,甘草三分(銼,炒)。上同為細末,每服半錢或一錢,取雄雞冠血三兩點,同溫酒少許,食后,同調下。(《閻氏小兒方論》)

【臨床應用】   ①防治流行**乙型腦炎

預防用板藍根3錢煎服,每日1劑,連服5天。治療用50%或200%板藍根注射液每次2毫升肌肉注射,每日2~3次?;蠐冒謇陡宸?,昏迷者行鼻飼,12歲以下每日2兩,13歲以上2~4兩,1次頓服或2次分服,連服2~3周;亦可每2小時服1次,****每次用2~2.5錢,15歲以下用1~2錢,待體溫降至正常后酌減劑量及次數,2天后停藥。治療過程中需配合必要的針灸、西藥等對癥處理及支持療法。據臨床觀察,板藍根具有清熱解毒、消除早期炎**改變,使邪熱外達的功效。早期應用,同時配合對癥處理,可大大提高治療效果。據190例的觀察,治愈率在90%以上。絕大多數病例于3天內退熱:臨床癥狀除特別嚴重者外,通常均能在退熱后即消失;少數有后遺癥,均系疾病過程中持續高熱、嚴重昏迷和抽搐的病例。

②防治流行**腮腺炎

用板藍根2~4兩,小兒減半,每日1劑煎服。同時可將板藍根配成30%溶液涂患處。據387例的觀察結果,除5例好轉、5例無效外,其余均治愈。對伴有并發癥者效果較差。預防服藥11295人次,似有控制流行的作用。

③治療感冒(包括"流感")

用100%板藍根注射液肌肉注射,視年齡及病情每次1~6毫升,每日2~4次。治療80例,治愈78例,無效2例(其中1例合并肺炎)。一般在1~3天退熱,2~5天癥狀消失。

④治療傳染**肝炎

用板藍根1兩,每日1劑煎服;或用板藍根6斤、蒲公英3斤,糖適量,制成煎劑1000毫升,日服2次,每次50毫升,15~20天為一療程。單味煎劑治療8例均獲效果,癥狀消失平均時間為6天,肝功能恢復為15.7天,肝臟縮小為13天。療效優于茵陳蒿湯對照組。復方煎劑治療50例,經一個療程后有50%病例肝功能恢復正常,第一、二療程累計肝功能恢復正常者達92%。

⑤治療暴發**紅眼

用板藍根制成10%或5%眼藥水,每日滴眼4次。觀察235例,4天內治愈率達94.9%。多數病例用藥(10%濃度)1天后球結膜水腫消失或好轉,自覺癥狀減輕或消失。治療早、病情輕者療效最好。藥液濃度10%的比5%的效果好。

⑥治療單純**皰疹**口炎

取板藍根l兩,制成60毫升煎液,1~3歲小兒每次10~20毫升,日服3次。治療11例,均于第2、3天熱退、流涎停止、充血消失、壞死上皮脫落,第4、5天見粘膜再生、潰瘍愈合。

⑦治療扁平疣等

用50%板藍根注射劑肌肉注射,每次2毫升,每月1~2次,10~20天為一療程。兒童可用****劑量。觀察45例,39例獲得治愈或進步。一般于2~15天開始見效,治愈時間7~45天不等。但皮損較多、范圍較廣泛者多無效果。

此外,用板藍根煎劑治療非典型**肺炎、流行**腦脊髓膜炎、白喉,用板藍根配合大青葉、羌活治療上呼吸道感染,用板藍根肌肉注射治療帶狀皰疹、單純皰疹及流行**腹瀉等,均有不同程度的療效。曾有報道,1例上呼吸道炎患者肌注板藍根注射液2毫升后15分鐘,即出現頭暈眼花,胸悶氣短,心慌煩亂,四肢麻木、發脹、奇癢,兩前臂及兩小腿滿布蕁麻疹等過敏反應現象,經及時處理后恢復。

【宜    忌】  體虛而無實火熱毒者忌服。

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